Use of antibiotics is associated with an increased risk of children developing juvenile idiopathic arthritis, according to new research. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) includes several types of childhood arthritis involving chronic joint inflammation. This inflammation begins before patients reach the age of 16, with symptoms lasting at least 6 weeks to be considered chronic. JIA may involve one or many joints and can cause other symptoms such as fevers, rash and/or eye inflammation. JIA is an autoimmune rheumatic disease, meaning that it involves a malfunctioning immune system that causes inflammation.